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HPB智能合约最佳实践

2019-10-10 01:10

1 、概述

HPB智能合约最佳实践

1.1 前言

本文档主要通过实例指导如何在HPB主网上发布智能合约教程。

文档阅读人员:社区开发人员、测试人员、运维人员。

1.2 学习准备

1.2.1 Solidity语言

Solidity是一种开源的智能合约高级语言,可以运行支持开源的Ethereum虚拟机(EVM)之上。具体的语言介绍和学习入门,在以下的网址中有详细介绍: https://solidity.readthedocs.io/en/v0.5.2/。

1.2.2 Remix

支持智能合约开发IDE,可以在浏览器中快速部署测试智能合约,支持Solidity语言。访问和使用地址:http://remix.ethereum.org或者http://remix.hpb.io/。

1.2.3 HPB主链接入指导

详情请前往HPB官网的接入详情界面,会指导你如何通过RPC,SDK等方式和主链交互。 https://www.hpb.io/client。

1.2.4 智能合约Demo地址

https://github.com/loglos/web3-hpb-test.git

2 、开发智能合约

2.1 环境准备

2.1.1 通过在线Remix在线编译器进行智能合约开发

请访问链接进行智能合约开发http://remix.ethereum.org具体智能合约的开发请见第3章节。

2.1.2 通过下载Remix开源代码搭建本地开发环境

下载地址:https://github.com/ethereum/remix-ide

  • 安装步骤

nstall npm and node.js (see https://docs.npmjs.com/getting-started/installing-node), then do:

Remix-ide has been published as an npm module:
npm install remix-ide -gremix-ide

Or if you want to clone the github repository (wget need to be installed first) :
git clone https://github.com/ethereum/remix-ide.gitgit clone https://github.com/ethereum/remix.git # only if you plan to link remix and remix-ide repositories and develop on it.cd remix-idenpm installnpm run setupremix # only if you plan to link remix and remix-ide repositories and develop on it.npm start

  • DEVELOPING:

Run npm start and open http://127.0.0.1:8080 in your browser.

Then open your text editor and start developing. The browser will automatically refresh when files are saved.

Most of the the time working with other modules (like debugger etc.) hosted in the Remix repository is not needed.

Troubleshooting building Some things to consider if you have trouble building the package:

Make sure that you have the correct version of node, npm and nvm. You can find the version that is tested on Travis CI by looking at the log in the build results. Run:
node --versionnpm --versionnvm --version

In Debian based OS such as Ubuntu 14.04LTS you may need to run apt-get install build-essential. After installing build-essential run npm rebuild.

  • Unit Testing Register new unit test files in test/index.js. The tests are written using tape.

Run the unit tests via: npm test

For local headless browser tests run npm run test-browser (requires Selenium to be installed - can be done with npm run selenium-install)

Running unit tests via npm test requires at least node v7.0.0

  • Browser Testing

To run the Selenium tests via Nightwatch serve the app through a local web server:
npm run serve # starts web server at localhost:8080

Then you will need to either:

1.Have a Selenium server running locally on port 4444.
Run: npm run test-browser

2.Or, install and run SauceConnect.
Run: sc -u  -k  (see .travis.yml for values)Run: npm run browser-test-sc

  • Usage as a Chrome Extension

If you would like to use this as a Chrome extension, you must either build it first or pull from the gh-pages branch, both described above. After that, follow these steps:
1.Browse to chrome://extensions/2.Make sure 'Developer mode' has been checked3.Click 'Load unpacked extension...' to pop up a file-selection dialog4.Select your remix-ide folder

  • Documentation

To see details about how to use Remix for developing and/or debugging Solidity contracts, please see our documentation page https://remix.readthedocs.io/en/latest/

2.2 使用Remix进行开发智能合约

2.2.1 合约准备

这里提供了一份发行ERC20标准token的合约代码。见文章末尾附件(1)

打开solidity智能合约在线编译器或者本地编辑器:

https://remix.ethereum.org/#optimize=true&version=soljson-v0.4.11+commit.68ef5810.js

粘贴代码到编辑器中,选择编译器编译版本为合约代码中指定的版本。

HPB智能合约最佳实践

2.2.2 重新编译ERC20 Token源代码

重新编译ERC20源代码,然后复制编译通过的代码的ABI数据,为后续部署到HPB主链做准备。

点击查看详情。

HPB智能合约最佳实践

2.2.3 发布合约到HPB主链

发布合约到HPB主链,有两种方式,一种是通过HPB官方提供JAVA SDK来发布;一种是通过安装节点后通过命令行来发布。

2.2.3.1 准备环境

通过JAVA SDK发布智能合约教程,请见HPB主网最佳实践之JAVA版本。

请查看Java最佳实践这篇文章

演示工程代码下载地址: https://github.com/loglos/web3-hpb-test.git

这里提醒开发者,需要新建合约对应的智能合约代码对应的 “.abi”和 “.bin” 文件并把以上复制的abi和bin代码复制到对应的该文件中。这里再简单讲解下关键代码。

源码工程下载后需要转为maven类型工程,注意在pom.xml文件中,引入了JAVA SDK的包。这里提醒下,请使用最新的2.0.3版本,修复了一些生成Java代码的缺陷。
io.hpb.web3web3-hpb2.0.3

2.2.3.2 演示源码说明

演示的程序在这个package下面
package io.hpb.web3.test;

ackage里面演示的Demo java类这里进行下说明:

UFOToken.sol:本次演示的ERC20的智能合约源码。

UFOToken.abi:智能合约编译后的abi源码。

UFOToken.bin:智能合约编译后的bin文件。

UFOTokenRun.java:Java生成智能合约对象类的执行类。

UFOToken.java:系统自动生成的智能合约映射的java源码。

2.2.3.3 UFOTokenRun执行说明

开发者可以直接执行UFOTokenRun.java里面的main方法,来进行调试。其中相关的地址的路径,请根据自身的开发环境的实际调用地址和HPB账号信息填写。
package io.hpb.web3.test;
import java.math.BigDecimal;import java.math.BigInteger;import java.util.Arrays;
import io.hpb.web3.codegen.SolidityFunctionWrapperGenerator;import io.hpb.web3.crypto.Credentials;import io.hpb.web3.crypto.WalletUtils;import io.hpb.web3.protocol.Web3;import io.hpb.web3.protocol.Web3Service;import io.hpb.web3.protocol.admin.Admin;import io.hpb.web3.protocol.core.DefaultBlockParameterName;import io.hpb.web3.protocol.core.methods.response.TransactionReceipt;import io.hpb.web3.protocol.http.HttpService;import io.hpb.web3.tx.ChainId;import io.hpb.web3.tx.RawTransactionManager;import io.hpb.web3.utils.Convert;import okhttp3.OkHttpClient;import io.hpb.web3.abi.datatypes.Address;import io.hpb.web3.abi.datatypes.generated.Uint256;
public class UFOTokenRun {
//发布智能合约账号的,keystore全路径,请根据实际地址来修改 private static String keyStoreAbsolutePath = "/path/UTC--2018-5cb988b9ce48fd3b5a328b582dd64f5c10d0e114"; //发布智能合约的账号密码,请使用你自己的账号和密码 private static String fromPassword = "demo111"; //发布智能合约的地址:这是目前已发布到主网的UFOToken智能合约地址,用户可以进行查询,但是不能转账,转账需要有HPB余额才能转账 private static String address = "0xfbbe0ba33812b531aced666d0bb2450216c11d11"; //开放的HPB节点URL地址,也可以自行搭建节点;此节点是HPB正式网开放的节点 private static String blockChainUrl = "http://pub.node.hpb.io/"; //系统默认参数设置 private static BigInteger GAS_PRICE = new BigInteger("18000000000");
private static BigInteger GAS_LIMIT = new BigInteger("100000000"); public static void main(String[] args) { //指定生成智能合约java映射类的package路径 String packageName = "io.hpb.web3.test"; //指定生成智能合约java映射类源码的本地存放地址 String outDirPath = "//erc20//UFO//java"; //指定智能合约源码的本地地址,这两个文件也放在本类的package下面,读者可以自行处理 String binFilePath = "//erc20//UFO//bin//UFOToken.bin"; String abiFilePath = "//erc20//UFO//bin//UFOToken.abi";

//1、通过io.hpb.web3来生成智能合约sol源码的的映射类;然后把映射的类放到对应的package中 GenContractJavaCode(packageName, binFilePath, abiFilePath, outDirPath) ;

//2、发布智能合约,并获取地址 String address = depolyUFOTokenTest; //3、得到智能合约的余额 getUFOTokenContractBalance; //查询指定地址的erc20余额 String queryAddress = "0xd8ACcED8A7A92b334007f9C6127A848fE51D3C3b"; //4、校验智能合约并打印相关的信息 checkUFOTokenContract(queryAddress); //5、转账 String toAddress = "0x6cb988b9ce48Fd3b5a328B582dd64F5C10d0E114"; transferUFOTokenContract(toAddress,"13333333000000000000000000"); //5.2 查询余额 //checkUFOTokenContract(contractAddress,toAddress); }
/** * 通过智能合约的源码.sol文件和编译后的.bin文件生成java的源码 * String packageName:java源码的packagename * String binFileName:存放智能合约bin文件地址 * String abiFileName:存放智能合约的abi文件地址 * String outDirPath :java源码输出地址 * * **/ public static void GenContractJavaCode(String packageName,String binFilePath,String abiFilePath,String outDirPath) { try { String SOLIDITY_TYPES_ARG = "--solidityTypes"; SolidityFunctionWrapperGenerator.main(Arrays.asList(SOLIDITY_TYPES_ARG, binFilePath,abiFilePath,"-p",packageName, "-o", outDirPath).toArray(new String[0])); } catch (Exception e) { e.printStackTrace; }
}

/** * 通过编译智能合约源码得到合约映射的java类 * * **/ public static String depolyUFOTokenTest{ Credentials credentials = ; Admin admin = ;
String contractAddress = ""; try{ Web3Service web3Service = new HttpService(blockChainUrl, new OkHttpClient.Builder.build, true); admin = Admin.build(web3Service); credentials = WalletUtils.loadCredentials(fromPassword, keyStoreAbsolutePath); RawTransactionManager transactionManager=new RawTransactionManager(admin, credentials, ChainId.MAINNET);
// 1.发布 TOKEN UFOToken contract = UFOToken.deploy(admin, transactionManager, GAS_PRICE, GAS_LIMIT).send; System.out.println("合约地址:" + contract.getContractAddress); contractAddress = contract.getContractAddress; }catch (Exception e){ e.printStackTrace; } return contractAddress; } /** * 查询余额 * * **/ public static BigDecimal getUFOTokenContractBalance{ Credentials credentials = ; Admin admin = ; BigDecimal balanceWeiAmt = ;
try{ Web3Service web3Service = new HttpService(blockChainUrl, new OkHttpClient.Builder.build, true); admin = Admin.build(web3Service); BigInteger balance = admin.hpbGetBalance(address, DefaultBlockParameterName.LATEST).send.getBalance; balanceWeiAmt = Convert.fromWei(balance.toString, Convert.Unit.HPB); System.out.println(address + "账户余额:" + balanceWeiAmt); }catch (Exception e){ e.printStackTrace; } return balanceWeiAmt; } /** * 校验智能合约并打印地址ERC20余额 * * **/ public static void checkUFOTokenContract(String queryAddress){ Credentials credentials = ; Admin admin = ; try{ Web3Service web3Service = new HttpService(blockChainUrl, new OkHttpClient.Builder.build, true); admin = Admin.build(web3Service); credentials = WalletUtils.loadCredentials(fromPassword, keyStoreAbsolutePath); RawTransactionManager transactionManager=new RawTransactionManager(admin, credentials, ChainId.MAINNET); //检查合约是否可用
UFOToken contract = UFOToken.load(address, admin, transactionManager, GAS_PRICE, GAS_LIMIT); System.out.println("验证合约是否有效:" +contract.isValid ); if(contract.isValid) { BigInteger totalSupply = contract.totalSupply.send.getValue.divide(new BigInteger("1000000000000000000")); System.out.println("UFOtoken总供给量:"+totalSupply); System.out.println(address+" UFOToken余额:"+contract.balanceOf(new Address(address)).sendAsync.get.getValue.divide(new BigInteger("1000000000000000000"))); System.out.println(queryAddress+" UFOToken余额:"+contract.balanceOf(new Address(queryAddress)).sendAsync.get.getValue.divide(new BigInteger("1000000000000000000"))); }

}catch (Exception e){ e.printStackTrace; } } public String toDecimal(int decimal, BigInteger integer) { StringBuffer sbf = new StringBuffer("1"); for (int i = 0; i < decimal; i++) { sbf.append("0"); } String balance = new BigDecimal(integer).divide(new BigDecimal(sbf.toString), 18, BigDecimal.ROUND_DOWN).toPlainString; return balance; }

/** * 转账 * * **/ public static void transferUFOTokenContract(String toAddress,String toValue){ //keystore全路径 Credentials credentials = ; Admin admin = ; try{ Web3Service web3Service = new HttpService(blockChainUrl, new OkHttpClient.Builder.build, true); admin = Admin.build(web3Service); credentials = WalletUtils.loadCredentials(fromPassword, keyStoreAbsolutePath); RawTransactionManager transactionManager=new RawTransactionManager(admin, credentials, ChainId.MAINNET);
// 转账交易 UFOToken contract = UFOToken.load(address, admin, transactionManager, GAS_PRICE, GAS_LIMIT); TransactionReceipt receipt = contract.transfer(new Address(toAddress), new Uint256(new BigInteger(toValue))).send; System.out.println("交易Hash::::::"+receipt.getTransactionHash); }catch (Exception e){ e.printStackTrace; } }
}
//指定使用solidity开发语言版本pragma solidity ^0.4.19;/** * @title SafeMath * @dev Math operations with safety checks that throw on error */library SafeMath { //基本的算术方法库 // function mul(uint256 a, uint256 b) internal pure returns (uint256) { if (a == 0) { return 0; } uint256 c = a * b; assert(c / a == b); return c; } //除 function div(uint256 a, uint256 b) internal pure returns (uint256) { // assert(b > 0); // Solidity automatically throws when dividing by 0 uint256 c = a / b; // assert(a == b * c + a % b); // There is no case in which this doesn't hold return c; } //减 function sub(uint256 a, uint256 b) internal pure returns (uint256) { assert(b <= a); return a - b; } //加 function add(uint256 a, uint256 b) internal pure returns (uint256) { uint256 c = a + b; assert(c >= a); return c; }}/** * @title ERC20Basic * @dev Simpler version of ERC20 interface * @dev see https://github.com/ethereum/EIPs/issues/179 */contract ERC20Basic { //总供给量,也就是发币总量 uint256 public totalSupply; //查询指定地址余额 function balanceOf(address who) public view returns (uint256); //推荐的转账方法可以安全写入 function transfer(address to, uint256 value) public returns (bool); //记录日志 //address indexed fromaddress indexed to, uint256 value: event Transfer(address indexed from, address indexed to, uint256 value);}/** * @title ERC20 interface * @dev see https://github.com/ethereum/EIPs/issues/20 */contract ERC20 is ERC20Basic { //, _owner _spender查询能够从地址 _owner 提出的代币数量  function allowance(address owner, address spender) public view returns (uint256); // A-B从地址 _from 转移代币到地址 _to,必须触发 Transfer 事件 function transferFrom(address from, address to, uint256 value) public returns (bool); // _spender _value成功调用 approve 时触发  function approve(address spender, uint256 value) public returns (bool); //触发事件记录日志 event Approval(address indexed owner, address indexed spender, uint256 value);}/** * @title Basic token * @dev Basic version of StandardToken, with no allowances. */contract BasicToken is ERC20Basic { //SafeMathLibrary, using SafeMath for uint256; // mapping(address => uint256) balances; //_valuetoken_to /** * @dev transfer token for a specified address * @param _to The address to transfer to. * @param _value The amount to be transferred. */ function transfer(address _to, uint256 _value) public returns (bool) { //require //address(0) 必须是有效地址 require(_to != address(0)); //balances: //msg.sender //发送者余额不为0 require(_value <= balances[msg.sender]); // SafeMath.sub will throw if there is not enough balance. //发送者余额扣减 balances[msg.sender] = balances[msg.sender].sub(_value); //接受者余额增加 balances[_to] = balances[_to].add(_value); //进行交易 Transfer(msg.sender, _to, _value); return true; } //// balanceOffunctionbalanceOf(address _owner)constantreturns(uint256 balance) /** * @dev Gets the balance of the specified address. * @param _owner The address to query the the balance of. * @return An uint256 representing the amount owned by the passed address. */ function balanceOf(address _owner) public view returns (uint256 balance) { return balances[_owner]; }}/** * @title Standard ERC20 token * * @dev Implementation of the basic standard token. * @dev https://github.com/ethereum/EIPs/issues/20 */contract StandardToken is ERC20, BasicToken { mapping (address => mapping (address => uint256)) internal allowed; /** * @dev Transfer tokens from one address to another * @param _from address The address which you want to send tokens from * @param _to address The address which you want to transfer to * @param _value uint256 the amount of tokens to be transferred */ function transferFrom(address _from, address _to, uint256 _value) public returns (bool) { require(_to != address(0)); require(_value <= balances[_from]); require(_value <= allowed[_from][msg.sender]); balances[_from] = balances[_from].sub(_value); balances[_to] = balances[_to].add(_value); allowed[_from][msg.sender] = allowed[_from][msg.sender].sub(_value); Transfer(_from, _to, _value); return true; } /** * @dev Approve the passed address to spend the specified amount of tokens on behalf of msg.sender. * * Beware that changing an allowance with this method brings the risk that someone may use both the old * and the new allowance by unfortunate transaction ordering. One possible solution to mitigate this * race condition is to first reduce the spender's allowance to 0 and set the desired value afterwards: * https://github.com/ethereum/EIPs/issues/20#issuecomment-263524729 * @param _spender The address which will spend the funds. * @param _value The amount of tokens to be spent. */ function approve(address _spender, uint256 _value) public returns (bool) { allowed[msg.sender][_spender] = _value; Approval(msg.sender, _spender, _value); return true; } /** * @dev Function to check the amount of tokens that an owner allowed to a spender. * @param _owner address The address which owns the funds. * @param _spender address The address which will spend the funds. * @return A uint256 specifying the amount of tokens still available for the spender. */ function allowance(address _owner, address _spender) public view returns (uint256) { return allowed[_owner][_spender]; }}/// @title UFO Protocol Token./// For more information about this token, please visit http://www.banyanbbt.orgcontract UFOToken is StandardToken { string public name; string public symbol; uint public decimals; /** * CONSTRUCTOR  *  * @dev Initialize the UFO Token */ function UFOToken public {  totalSupply = 10 * 10 ** 26; balances[msg.sender] = totalSupply; name = "UFOToken"; symbol = "UFO"; decimals = 18; }}

HPB智能合约最佳实践

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http://wangxiaoming.com/

HPB 芯链官网

http://www.hpb.io/

汪晓明

HPB芯链创始人,巴比特专栏作家。十余年金融大数据、区块链技术开发经验,曾参与创建银联大数据。主创区块链教学视频节目《明说》30多期,编写了《以太坊官网文档中文版》,并作为主要作者编写了《区块链开发指南》,在中国区块链社区以ID“蓝莲花”知名。
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